Highspeed 3D: the next step for complicated microbubble behaviour
Over the past 40 years, the response of medical microbubbles (1-5 µm) in an ultrasound field has been extensively studied both acoustically as well as optically, since they can be used in ultrasound imaging in patients for improved diagnosis. The resolution of optical systems makes it possible to study individual bubbles and 1D and 2D systems were developed capturing the bubble’s behaviour. Untill1999, bubble dynamics were resolved in a 1D streak image using a microscope and camera setup (1). The Imacon 468 camera could additionally store seven 2D frames at high frame rate, facilitating the interpretation of the streak images. Higher frame numbers were available in the Ultranac system (twenty-four 2D frames), and in the Brandaris 128 camera system, which is able to record 128 frames at rates up to 25 million frames per second(2). Along these recordings the modelling of the behaviour of microbubbles was more and more refined but all based on the one-dimensional Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Following this historical line, a setup that is able to image the bubble in 3 dimensions is believed to provide even more insight in the dynamics of a vibrating bubble and is essential in understanding the cell-bubble behaviour and exploiting the diagnostic and therapeutic use microbubbles. In the figures below 2D/3D phenomena are displayed like the shedding of the phospholipids for long burst (500 cycles)(3), the bubble vibration nearby a wall showing non-symmetrical behaviour(4) and a mode 4 vibrations after a 78 µs(5). In conclusion: There is a clear need for 3D high speed recordings and the next step in modelling to replace the one-dimensional Rayleigh-Plesset model.
Left panel: Streaming vortices traced by lipid vesicles shed from a microbubble (255 kPa, 500 cycles). The schematic plot indicates the vortical flow structure correspondingly. The scale bar represents 5 μm. Middle pan
|Last name||de Jong|
Erasmus MC, Thoraxctr, Biomedical Engineering, Rotterdam, The Netherlands;Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Scientific Imaging, Delft, The Netherlands
|Session||10. Sensors and cameras I|
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