Mega-hertz (MHz) X-ray pulse repetition rates are characteristic to storage ring synchrotron light sources. When combined with an indirect X-ray detection scheme composed of a fast-decay scintillator and an ultra high-speed CMOS camera, this allows multiple-frame tracking of transient processes . The temporal resolution of this so-called single-bunch imaging is ~100 ps, which is equivalent to the width of an electron bunch in the storage ring . A train of X-ray pulses can also be captured continuously (multiple-bunch imaging). In the latter case the temporal resolution depends on the camera’s integration window; several hundred nanoseconds are frequently reached [1,3]. At the European Synchrotron – ESRF, beamline ID19, single- and multiple-bunch X-ray imaging up to millions frames per second rates are now routinely performed for various in situ materials characterization [1-6]. Superior to other photon-based probes, ultra high-speed, hard X-ray imaging is perfectly suitable for in situ materials characterization in optically opaque objects. In this presentation, we will describe our strategies to push the limits of time-resolved hard X-ray imaging for materials characterization at ESRF. We will show visualizations of various transient processes such as crack propagation in glass, explosion during electric arc ignition in an industrial fuse, laser-induced micro-cavitations and jetting in water, laser-shock-induced compression in polymeric foam, battery failure during thermal runaway, and keyhole formation during laser welding.
1. M. P. Olbinado et al., Optics Expr. 25 (2017) 13857.
|Title||Advancing in situ materials characterization using ultra high-speed imaging with synchrotron X-rays|
The European Synchrotron -ESRF, Grenoble, France
|Session||4. X-rays I|
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